1. Bird, M., Kapp, R., Keller, C., and Lington, A. (1986). A thirteen week feeding study on diisononyl phthalate in rats. The Toxicologist 6:302.  

This abstract documented the effects, primarily associated with peroxisomal proliferation, of repeated administration of DINP in rats.

2. David,R., Moore, M., Finney, D., and Guest, D. (2000). Chronic Toxicity of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate in rats.
Toxicological Sciences 55:433-443.  

This paper documented the effects, primarily associated with peroxisomal proliferation, of repeated administration of DEHP in rats.

3. David, R., Moore, M., Finney, D., and Guest, D. (2000). Chronic Toxicity of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in mice. Toxicological Sciences 58:377-385.  

This paper documented the effects, primarily associated with peroxisomal proliferation, of repeated administration of DEHP in mice.

4. Hall, M., Matthews, A., Webley, L., and Harling, R. (1999). Effects of di-isononyl phthalate (DINP) on peroxisomal markers in the marmoset—DINP is not a peroxisome proliferator. The Journal of Toxicological Sciences. 24:237-244. 

This paper documented that repeated administration of DINP did not produce peroxisomal proliferation or other liver effects in marmosets.

5. Hammond, B., Levinskas, G., Robinson, E., and Johannsen, R. (1987). A review of the subchronic toxicity of butyl benzyl phthalate. Toxicology and Industrial Health 3:79-98.  

This paper documents the results of studies of repeated BBP exposure to rats and dogs. There were no effects at low doses; effects at high doses were largely species-specific.

6. Butala, J., David, R., Gans, G., McKee, R., Guo, T., Peachee, V., White, K., (2004). Phthalate Treatment Does Not Influence Levels of IgE or TH2 Cytokines in B6C3F1 mice. Toxicology 201 (2004) 77-85. 

This research showed that phthalates, when applied to the skin of mice, did not affect levels of immunological markers associated with respiratory allergy.

7. Pugh, G., Isenberg, J., Kamendulis, L., Ackley, D., Clare, L., Brown, R., Lington, A., Smith, J., and Klaunig, J. (2000). Effects of di-isononyl phthalate, di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate, and clofibrate in Cynomolgus monkeys. Toxicological Sciences 56:181-188.  

This paper documented that repeated administration of DEHP and DINP did not produce peroxisomal proliferation or other liver effects in marmosets.

8. Tomonari Y., Kurata Y., Kawasuso T., David R., Gans G., Tsuchitani M., Katoh M. Effect of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) from juvenile common marmosets. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A, 69:1651-1672, 2006.  

Juvenile male marmosets fed very high doses of DEHP from weaning to maturity showed no effects on their reproductive organs.

9. Kessler, W., Numtip, W., Grote, K., Csanady, G., Chahoud, I., and Filser, J. (2004). Blood burden of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and its primary metabolite mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in pregnant and nonpregnant rats and marmosets. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 195:142-153.  

Rats and marmosets were given equivalent doses of DEHP, but blood levels of MEHP were as much as 7.5 times lower in the marmosets, and the total internal dose of MEHP was as much as16 times lower.

10. Roloff, M., Robinson, E., Folk, R., and Ribelin, W. (1983). Subchronic inhalation toxicity studies of butyl benzyl phthalate in Sprague-Dawley rats. The Toxicologist 3:24.  

This abstract, presented at the 1983 Society of Toxicology reported the results of repeated inhalation studies of BBP in rats. A clear no effect level was determined.  

11. Shellenberger, T., Kowalski, J., Unwin, S., Grandjean, C., Carter, J.and Hodgson, J. (1983). Comparative 28 day oral toxicity of selected phthalate esters. The Toxicologist Vol. 3 No.1: 157.  

This paper documents that dietary exposure to high levels of a range of phthalate esters increases liver weight and provides other evidence of peroxisome proliferation.
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