1. Moore, N. (2000). The estrogenic potential of the phthalate esters. Reproductive Toxicology 14: 183-192.


This review article reported that animals fed various phthalates showed no evidence of estrogenic effects.

2. Zacharewski, T.R., Meek, M.D., Clemons, J.H., Wu, Z.F., Fielden, M.R., Mathews, J.B. (1998). Examination of in vitro and in vivo estrogenic activities of eight commercial phthalate esters. Toxicological Sciences 46:282-293.


This study showed no in vivo estrogenic activity in rats.

Sponsored by the Phthalate Esters Panel (in whole or in part).

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