1. Fulcher, S., Willoughby, C., Heath, J., Veenstra, G., and Moore, N. (2000). Developmental toxicity of di(C7-C9 alkyl) phthalate and di-(C9-C11 alkyl)phthalate in the rat. Reproductive Toxicology 15:95-102.


This paper documented that the high molecular weight linear phthalates were not selective developmental toxicants.

2. Hellwig, J., Freudenberger, H., and Jackh, R. (1997). Differential prenatal toxicity of branched phthalate esters in rats. Food and Chemical Toxicology 35:501-512.


This paper documented the results of screening studies on a range of phthalates. As in the more complete study documented in Waterman (below), DINP and DIDP were demonstrated not to be selective developmental toxicants. For other phthalates tested, DEHP, di-isopentyl phthalate and di-711 phthalate, fetal effects were detected at very high levels but clear no effect levels were determined.

3. Waterman, S., Ambroso, J., Keller, L., Trimmer, G., Nikiforov, A., and Harris, S. (1999). Developmental toxicity of di-isodecyl and di-isononyl phthalates in rats. Reproductive Toxicology 13:131-136.


This paper documented that DINP and DIDP were not selective developmental toxicants.

4. Uriu-Adams, J., Reece, C., Nguyenm L., Horvath, B., Nair, R., Barter, R. and Keen, C. (2000). Effect of butyl benzyl phthalate on reproduction and zinc metabolism. Toxicology 159:55-68.


This paper showed that developmental effects induced by BBP are not caused by zinc depletion.
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