1. Benford, D., Patel, S., Reavy, H., Mitchell, A., and Sarginson, N. (1986). Species differences in the response of cultured hepatocytes to phthalate esters. Food and Chemical Toxicology 24:799-800. 
This paper documented that DINP and DIDP did not induce peroxisomal proliferation in marmoset hepatocytes.

2. Hasmall, S., James, N., Macdonald, N., West, D., Chevalier, S., Cosulich, S., and Roberts, R. (1999). Suppression of apoptosis and induction of DNA synthesis in vitro by the phthalate plasticizers monoethylhexylphthalate (MEHP) and diisononyl phthalate (DINP): A comparison of rat and human hepatocytes in vitro. Archives of Toxicology 73:451-456. 

This paper documented that MEHP and DINP did not induce peroxisomal proliferation in human hepatocytes.*

3. Kamedulis, L., Isenberg, J., Smith, J., Pugh, G., Lington, A. and Klaunig, J. (2002). Comparative effects of phthalate monoesters on gap junctional intercellular communication and peroxisome proliferation in rodent and primate hepatocytes. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A. 65:569-588, 2002. 

This paper provides additional evidence that toxicological effects of phthalate esters are species-specific.

4. Shaw, D., Lee, R., Roberts, R.A., (2002). Species differences in response to the phthalate plasticizer monoisononyl phthalate (MINP) in vitro: a comparison of rat and human hepatocytes. Archives of Toxicology 76:344-350.  

This paper provides evidence that, unlike rodent cells, human cells do not exhibit the changes associated with peroxisomal proliferation, providing evidence that DINP would not be carcinogenic in humans.

*Sponsored by the Phthalate Esters Panel (in whole or in part).

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