1. Astill, B. (1989). Metabolism of DEHP: Effects of prefeeding and dose variation, and comparative studies in rodents and the Cynomolgus monkey (CMA studies). Drug Metabolism Reviews 21:35-53.  

This paper was a comparative study of phthalate absorption that showed primates absorb a smaller fraction of dose than rodents.*

2. Barber, E., Teetsel, N., Kolberg, K., and Guest, D. (1992). A comparative study of the rates of in vitro percutaneous absorption of eight chemicals using rat and human skin. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology 19:493-497.  

This paper documented that DEHP is absorbed more slowly through human skin than rat skin.* 

3. Deisinger, P., Perry, L., and Guest, D. (1998). In vivo percutaneous absorption of [14C] DEHP from [14C] DEHP plasticized polyvinyl chloride film in male Fischer 344 rats. Food and Chemical Toxicology 36:521-527.   

This study shows that DEHP from plasticized articles is not readily available and dermal absorption is very limited.* 

4. El-hawari, M., Lington, A., Stoltz, M., Baldwin, J., and Pallas, F. (1985). Disposition and metabolism of diisononyl phthalate (DINP) in Fischer 344 rats: Single dosing studies. The Toxicologist 5:238. 

This abstract documented that DINP is rapidly metabolized and eliminated when administered in a single dose. 

5. Kurata Y., Makinodan F., Okada M., Kawasuso T., David R., Gans G.,Regnier J., Katoh, M. Blood concentration and tissue distribution of 14C-di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in juvenile and adult common marmoset. The Toxicologist 2003;72:384-385. 

This paper reports on the pharmacokinetic differences between rodents and primates in the metabolism, absorption and excretion of DEHP. Due to these differences, the high bloodstream doses associated with many of the reported effects in rodents cannot be achieved in humans, even if humans somehow were exposed to phthalates at the very high levels given to rodents. 

6. Lington, A., Baldwin, J., Murrill, E., Stoltz, M., Pallas, F., and El-hawari, M. (1985). Disposition and metabolism of diisononyl phthalate (DINP) in Fischer 344 rats: Multiple dosing studies. The Toxicologist 5:238. 

This abstract documented that DINP is rapidly metabolized and eliminated when repeatedly administered. 

7. Short, R., Robinson, E., Lington, A., and Chin, A. (1987). Metabolic and peroxisome proliferation studies with di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate in rats and mice. Toxicology and Industrial Health 3:185-194.  

This paper referenced the same study as in Astill (1989), but provided some additional information on species differences.* 

8. Stoltz, M., El-hawari, M., Lington, A., (1985). Dermal disposition of diisononyl phthalate (DINP) in Fischer 344 rats. The Toxicologist 5:247. 

This abstract documented that minimal amounts of DINP are absorbed through the skin. 

*Sponsored by the Phthalate Esters Panel (in whole or in part).

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