1. Brown, D., Thompson, R. S., Stewart, K. M., Croudace, C. P., Gillings, E. (1996) The effect of phthalate plasticizers on the emergence of the midge (Chironomus riparius) from treated sediments. Chemosphere 32:2177-2187.

Found no effects on the development of larvae, time to emergence, emergence success of adults, or the sex of the emerging adults of midge flies after exposure to 10,000 mg/kg (ppm) dry weight DEHP or DIDP in sediments for 28 days.

2. Call, D. J., Markee, T. P., Geiger, D. L., Brooke, L. T., VandeVenter, F. A., Cox, D. A., Genisot, K. I., Robillard, K. A., Gorsuch, J. W., Parkerton, T. F., Reiley, M. C., Ankley, G. T., Mount, D. R. (2001). An assessment of the toxicity of phthalate esters to freshwater benthos: 1. Aqueous exposures. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 20:1718-1804 

*Acute water-only (10-d) tests with three species of benthic invertebrates were performed with effects reported for dimethyl-, diethyl-, di-n-butyl-, and butylbenzyl phthalates and no effects found at their solubility for dihexyl- and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalates.

3. Call, D. J., Cox, D. A., Geiger, D. L., Genisot, K. I., Markee, T. P., Brooke, L. T., Polkinghorne, C. N., VandeVenter, F. A., Gorsuch, J. W., Robillard, K. A., Parkerton, T. F., Reiley, M. C., Ankley, G. T., Mount, D. R. (2001) An assessment of the toxicity of phthalate esters to freshwater benthos: 2. Sediment exposures.
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 20:1805-1815 

*Acute (10-d) tests with two species of sediment dwelling aquatic invertebrates and one or three types of sediment. Lower phthalates posed measurable toxicity similar to or lower than predicted by water-only exposure and the EqP theory. Higher phthalate esters (dihexyl and higher) posed no toxicity at 3000 mg/kg (ppm) dry weight.

4. Williams, M. D., Adams, W. J., Parkerton, T. F., Biddinger, G. R., Robillard, K. A. (1995). Sediment/soil partition coefficients measurements of four phthalate esters corrected for particle interactions and dissolved organic carbon interactions. Environmenal Toxicology and Chemistry 14:1477-1486 

*Reports the results of measured partition coefficients made using U.S. EPA methods for dihexyl-, di(2-ethylhexyl)-, diisodecyl-, and ditridecyl-phthalate. The results were consistent with partitioning models and showed a dependence on solids concentration. Concludes that partition coefficients measured using this procedure need to be corrected for the solids effect to avoid overestimation of sediment pore-water concentrations.

*Sponsored by the Phthalate Esters Panel (in whole or in part).

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