1. Howard P.H. (1991) Handbook of Environmental Degradation Rates. Lewis Publishers Inc. Chelsea, MI. p. 725.

Presents "expected" environmental degradation rates and a range of pseudo-first order half-lives for phthalate esters in air, water, soil, and sediment.

[NOTE: This handbook was not sponsored by the Panel or producers, but is a general reference text that includes information on phthalate esters.]

2. Scholz, N., Diefenbach, R., Rademacher, I., Linnemann, D. (1997). Biodegradation of DEHP, DBP, and DINP: Poorly Water Soluble and Widely Used Phthalate Plasticizers. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 58:527-534.

This study assessed the biodegradation of DEHP, DBP, and DINP following the current OECD guidelines and criteria for "ready biodegradability." Using the Modified Sturm test for conversion of the test substances to carbon dioxide (mineralization), all three phthalate esters were shown to be mineralized by more than 80% in 28 days. The results also met the 10-day window and thus met all of the criteria for ready biodegradability. The authors observed that conflicting earlier reports of biodegradability of phthalate esters were likely to be the result of methodological problems, particularly low bioavailability of these poorly water soluble compounds in different test systems.

3. Sugatt, R. H., O'Grady, D. P., Banerjee, S., Howard, P. H., Gledhill, W. E. (1984). Shake flask biodegradation of 14 commercial phthalate esters. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 47:601-606.

Reports the results of biodegradation studies conducted using OECD protocols showing that phthalate esters are readily biodegradable.

Sponsored by the Phthalate Esters Panel (in whole or in part)

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