1. Adams, W. J., Biddinger, G. R., Robillard, K. A., Gorsuch, J. G. (1995). A summary of the acute toxicity of 14 phthalate esters to representative aquatic organisms. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 14:1569-1574. 

*Presents acute toxicity data for 14 phthalate esters using nine species of freshwater and marine organisms. All studies were conducted using Good Laboratory Practices.

2. Brown, D., Croudace, C. P., Williams, N. J., Shearing, J. M. and Johnson, P. A. (1998). The effect of phthalate ester plasticizers tested as surfactant stabilised dispersions on the reproduction of the Daphnia magna. Chemosphere 36:6:1367-1379.

Reported the results of chronic tests with Daphnia magna exposed to higher phthalate esters. Concentrations tested were well in excess of each compound's aquaeous solubility, which was made possible by using a dispersant. No effects on survival, growth or reproduction were observed for the commercial blends of C6 to C10, C8 to C10 and C7 to C9 phthalate ester (L610P, L810P and L79P), diisohexyl phthalate (DIHP), di(2- ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), diisononyl phthalate (DINP), diisodecyl phthalate (DIDP), diundecyl phthalate (DUP), diphenyl; phthalate (DPHP) and ditridecyl phthalate (DTDP).

3. Parkerton, T.F., Konkel, W. J. (2000). Application of quantitative structure-activity relationships for assessing the aquatic toxicity of phthalate esters. Ecotoxicology and Environmenal Safety 45:61-78. 

*Shows results for low-molecular weight phthalate esters with log Kow < 6 indicating that toxicity data conform to a simple low Kow-dependent QSAR. Results for high molecular weight phthalate esters (log Kow>6) indicate that these chemicals are not acutely or chronically toxic to freshwater or marine organisms due to the combined role of low water solubility and limited bioconcentration potential, which precludes attainment of internal concentrations that are required to elicit adverse effects. Refined predicted no effect concentrations (PNECs) using U.S. EPA and European Chemicals Bureau (ECB) methods are presented.

4. Rhodes, J. E., Adams, W. J., Biddinger, G. R., Robillard, K. A., Gorsuch, J. G. (1995). Chronic toxicity of 14 phthalate esters to Daphnia magna and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 14:1967-1976.  

*Presents chronic toxicity data for 14 phthalate esters using nine species of freshwater and marine organisms. All studies were conducted using Good Laboratory Practices. Discusses entrapment of daphnids due to formation of emulsions by low solubility phthalates (log Kow>6).

5. Robillard, K.A., DuFresne, D.L., Peterson, D. R., Gorsuch, J. W. .Aquaeous Solubility and toxicity of di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate.  Poster to be presented at 24th annual meeting of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (Nov, 2003).

New measurement techniques allow more accurate measurement of the water solubility of DEHA. Actual DEHA solubility values are much lower than previously reported, indicating that DEHA presents a low environmental hazard. At this level, no chemical toxicity was foudnin Daphnia (a standard species for aquatic toxicity testing).

6. Staples, C. A., Adams, W. J., Parkerton, T. F., Gorsuch, J. G., Biddinger, G. R., Reinert, K. (1997). Aquatic toxicity of eighteen phthalate esters—a review. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 16:875-891. 

*Review of aquatic toxicity database for phthalate esters covers nearly 400 test results and more than 60 species of freshwater and marine microorganisms, algae, invertebrates and fish.

7. Staples, C. A., Parkerton, T. F., Peterson, D. R. (2000). A risk assessment of selected phthalate esters in North American and Western European surface waters. Chemosphere 40:885-891. 

*Surface water monitoring data were assembled from literature and government reports and compared with refined predicted no effect concentrations (PNECs) calculated using U.S. EPA and European Chemicals Bureau (ECB) methods. Results show that concentrations of dimethyl-, diethyl-, di-n-butyl-, and butylbenzyl-phthalate are typically several orders of magnitude below their respective PNECs, indicating that these phthalate esters do not pose a ubiquitous threat to aquatic organisms in North American and Western European surface waters.

*Sponsored by the Phthalate Esters Panel (in whole or in part)

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