1. Carr, K. H., Coyle, G. T., Kimerle, R. A. (1997). Bioconcentration of (14C) butylbenzyl phthalate in bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus). Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 16:2200-2203.

Reports measured bioconcentration factors (BCFs) for intact BBP (normalized to 6% lipid) were 9.4 L/kg (whole fish), 8.7 L/kg (viscera), and 1.7 L/kg (fillet). These BCFs are considerably lower than BCFs calculated using total radioactive residues, indicating extensive metabolism of BBP by fish.

2. Gledhill, W. E., Kaley, R. G., Adams, W. J., Hicks, O., Michael, P. R., Saeger, V. W., LeBlanc, G. A. (1980). An environmental safety assessment of butyl benzyl phthalate. Environmental Science and Technology 14: 301-305.

Study demonstrates that, under present use/disposal patterns, butylbenzyl phthalate does not constitute a hazard to the aquatic environment.

3. Staples, C. A., Peterson, D. R., Parkerton, T. F., Adams, W. J. (1997). The environmental fate of phthalate esters: a literature review. Chemosphere 35:667-749. 

*Reports on a comprehensive and critical review of the environmental fate of 18 commercial phthalate esters with alkyl chains ranging from 1 to 13 carbons. Hundreds of results are presented that were taken from both field and laboratory experiments.

*Sponsored by the Phthalate Esters Panel (in whole or in part).

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