- Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion
This section includes research on:
- how different species take up phthalates in different ways
- the organs they go to and in what amounts
- how rapidly they are broken down and clear the body
- Short-term Exposure, Irritation, and Sensitization
This section includes research exploring whether exposure to phthalates triggers allergic reactions, including reactions related to asthma.
- Long-term Exposure Studies
This section includes research exploring whether adverse health effects seen in rodents are species-specific, or whether they are relevant to higher-order animals, including primates.
This section explores cancer effects seen in some rodents from high doses of some phthalates, and whether those effects are relevant to humans, or are caused by biological mechanisms (including peroxisomal proliferation) that do not occur in humans.
- Mutational Studies
This section includes research exploring whether certain phthalates cause mutations in the genetic makeup of rodents.
- Developmental Studies
This section’s research exposures the potential for certain phthalates to have developmental effects in rodents.
- Reproductive Studies
Research in this section explores the potential for some phthalates to have reproductive effects in rodents including:
- effects on fertility and/or effects on reproductive organs
- dose levels that caused such effects
- Endocrine Modulation Studies
This section contains research exploring whether phthalates have estrogenic effects in living animals.
- Biomonitoring Data
This section contains material relating to the biomonitoring research conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.